Thanx to Stalin, Anon.
We see Michael Psellus in the 11th Century surprisingly contrasting "the ancient and lesser Rome, and the later, more powerful city" [! Even so, in the midst of Istanbul, it mostly still remains standing, in some places even restored, its breaches merely allowing modern streets to pass [ note ].
As Roman historians liked to use archaic place names, and so frequently called Constantinople "Byzantium," their use of "Byzantine," Byzantinus, was simply and logically for residents of the Capital. The Suda [a tenth century encyclopedia] calls [the historian] Malchus [of Philadelphia] a "Byzantine," which usually meant a native of Constantinople but in this case must have meant a longtime resident.
German, envoys, in an embassy from Otto Iwith their own pretentions as successors of Rome, arrived at the Court of Nicephorus Phocas intheir represenation of Otto as the "Emperor of the Romans" Imperator Romanorum was hotly disputed. Otto was not a successor of Constantine. A letter then arrived from the Pope addressed to the "emperor of the Greeks.
Evidently the Pope had not heard of "Byzantium" as the name of the Empire [ note ]. While "Byzantium" is indeed used merely as a term of convience and custom by most historians, there is the awkward question of when "Rome" ends and "Byzantium" begins.
If Rome "fell" inthen clearly "Byzantium" should begin there; but this boundary is rarely used. Since Constantinople itself must be explained, Byzantine histories commonly begin with Constantine, often inwhen Constantine had defeated Lincinius and acquired the East.
This is what one finds in A. The flip side of this would be simply to end the "Roman Empire" with Constantine. This is not common, but I have seen Garrett G.
With thirty-six lectures on Emperors, Fagan abruptly stops at Constantine, with a handoff to Kenneth W. Fagan says that, to him, Constantine was the first Mediaeval, or the first Byzantine, Emperor; and so his job is done.
The drawback of this approach is that the last century and a half of the Western Empire falls between the stools, not to mention the extraordinary and tragic Julianwho ruled the whole Empire. And Harl has the annoying habit of saying "Stilichio" for Stilicho and "Visiogoths" for "Visigoths," forms that I do not see attested in any print source.
So this approach really will not do. On the other hand, David R. Others take Phocas or Heracliusunder whom the Danube Frontier collapsed and the Arab invasion occurred, as the first "Byzantine" emperors: Fischer Verlag, Part 2, Second Edition,pp.
Fischer Verlag, Second Edition,pp. One nice touch for the division at Phocas could be that he was the last Emperor to place a monument, a column, in the Forum at Rome. A final date for the transition could bewhich is used by Peter Brown and others to terminate "Late Antiquity.
Both these events are significant, but they seem like variations on developments already far progressed. However much one wishes to avoid the dangers [? As I have noted, several recent writers prefer to see "Byzantium" proper as beginning from ca.
Constantinople was formally inaugurated in ADbut there was not yet such an entity as "Byzantium," distinct from the eastern Roman Empire, and it remains the case that the Byzantines thought of themselves as Romans chapter 3. The shock and loss of territory consequent on the Arab invasion of the seventh century also necessitated a painful adjustment.
Nevertheless, adopting a later periodization risks obscuring the fact that what we call Byzantium had a long earlier history; it was not a new state formed only in the medieval period. In the last generation "late antiquity" has taken over from "the later Roman empire" in much of the secondary literature, even if the continuing number of publications discussing its scope and nature suggests that these questions are not yet settled.
The "explosion" of late antiquity and now the turn to the east -- that is, toward the eastern Mediterranian, the rise of Islam, and the early Islamic world -- that is such a feature of current scholarship are both tendencies that threaten to squeeze out Byzantium.
And if there are "tendencies that threaten to squeeze out Byzantium," then perhaps this should be encouraged, since a more honest and acurate naming eliminates much of the basis of the sort of contempt that Cameron herself laments.
If we want to avoid entirely the impression that Byzantium "was not a new state formed only in the medieval period," then this would be accomplished most effectively by just not using the word "Byzantium. Cameron certainly never actually calls them Romans.
So why should modern historians have ever scorned the successors of Augustus in Constantinople?He was the first African-American man to win a Grand Slam title. The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty Compare and Contrast The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty have many areas in which they are very similar but here are a few that I thought were important/5(1).
As Peter Heather puts it [The Fall of the Roman Empire, Oxford, ], Rome was now an "inside-out" Empire -- the center and the periphery had exchanged places (as illustrated in the animation at left).This transformation is scrupulously ignored in popular treatments of the Roman Empire, even in apparently well researched presentations on venues like the History Channel.
COMMUNIQUE #3 Haymarket Issue "I NEED ONLY MENTION in passing that there is a curious reappearance of the Catfish tradition in the popular Godzilla cycle of films which arose after the nuclear chaos unleashed upon Japan.
On teachers’ salaries, at least, the NCES data is data for WAGES only, not total compensation. Given their civil service protections, automatic, seniority based promotions, extremely generous benefits and pensions, a picture of flatlining wages is inaccurate.
Historiography: Historiography, the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particular details from the authentic materials in those sources, and the synthesis of those details into a narrative that stands the test of critical.