This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades.
France[ edit ] Political psychology originated from Western Europe, France, where it was closely tied to the emergence of new disciplines and paradigms as well as to the precise social and political context in various countries.
The philosopher Hippolyte Taine —a founder of the Ecole Libre de Sciences Politiques, applied Bastian's theories in his works The Origins of Contemporary France —to ideas on the founding and development of the Third Republic.
The head of Ecole Libre de Sciences Politiques, Emile Boutmy —was a famous explorer of social, political and geographical concepts of national interactions. He suggested in his works Psychology of Socialism and Political Psychology and Social Defense  that in the uncontrollable state of a crowd people were more vulnerable to submission and leadership, and suggested that embracing nationalism would remedy this.
Italy[ edit ] Meanwhile in Italy, the Risorgimento instigated various social reforms and voting rights. The large division in social class during this period led lawyer Gaetano Mosca — to publish his work, The Ruling Class: Elements of Political Sciencewhich theorized the presence of the ruling and the ruled classes of all societies.
His work The Mind and Society offers a sociology treatise. Michels was a German socialist fascinated by the distinction between the largely lower class run parliament in Germany and upper class run parliament in Italy.
He wrote Political Parties: His texts Totem and Taboo and Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego linked psychoanalysis with politics. Freud and Bullitt developed the first psychobiographical explanation to how the personality characteristics of U. Wilhelm Reich —inspired by the effects of World War II, was interested in whether personality types varied according to epoch, culture and class.
He described the bidirectional effect of group, society and the environment with personality. He also edited The Journal for Political Psychology and Sexual Economy — which was the first journal to present political psychology in the principal of western language.
Philosopher Herbert Marcuse — opened up issues concerning freedom and authority in his book, Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theorywhere he suggested groups compromise on individual rights.
Theodor Adorno — also investigated authoritarian individuals and anti-Semitism. His report The Authoritarian Personality attempts to determine the personality type susceptible to following fascism and anti-democratic propaganda.
Nazi movements during World War II also spurred controversial psychologists such as Walther Poppelreuter to lecture and write about political psychology that identified with Hitler.
The psychologist Eric Jaensch — contributed the racist book The Anti-type United Kingdom[ edit ] At the turn of the century, Oxford University and Cambridge University introduced disciplinary political psychology courses such as "The Sciences of the Man", along with the foundation of the Psychological society and the Sociological society Grundy — noted political psychology as a sub-discipline of history.
Wallace emphasized the importance of enlightening politicians and the public about the psychological processes in order to raise awareness on exploitation while developing control over one's own psychological intellect.
He suggested in Great Society that recognition of such processes could help to build a more functional humanity. United States[ edit ] Across the Atlantic the first American to be considered a political psychologist was Harold Lasswell — whose research was also spurred by a sociological fascination of World War I.
His work Propaganda Technique in the World War discussed the use of applying psychological theories in order to enhance propaganda technique. His major theories involved the motives of the politically active and the relation between propaganda and personality. Another contributing factor to the development of Political Psychology was the introduction of psychometrics and "The Measurement of Attitude" by Thurstone and Chave Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and schwenkreis.com is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest.
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