America was the largest military power in the world — in theory. The large population, generous natural resources, advanced infrastructure, and solid capital base were all just potential. Centralization and mobilization were necessary to jump-start this unwieldy machine. Throughout the war hundreds more alphabet agencies were created to manage the American homefront.
Visit Website This fear of attack translated into a ready acceptance by a majority of Americans of the need to sacrifice in order to achieve victory. During the spring ofa rationing program was established that set limits on the amount of gas, food and clothing consumers could purchase.
Families were issued ration stamps that were used to buy their allotment of everything from meat, sugar, fat, butter, vegetables and fruit to gas, tires, clothing and fuel oil. Meanwhile, individuals and communities conducted drives for the collection of scrap metal, aluminum cans and rubber, all of which were recycled and used to produce armaments.
Many of these workers were women. Indeed, with tens of thousands of American men joining the armed forces and heading into training and into battle, women began securing jobs as welders, electricians and riveters in defense plants.
Until that time, such positions had been strictly for men only. Soon afterward, Walter Pidgeona Hollywood leading man, traveled to the Willow Run aircraft plant in Ypsilanti, Michiganto make a promotional film encouraging the sale of war bonds.
One of the women employed at the factory, Rose Will Monroewas a riveter involved in the construction of B and B bombers. During the war years, the decrease in the availability of men in the work force also led to an upsurge in the number of women holding non-war-related factory jobs.
By the mids, the percentage of women in the American work force had expanded from 25 percent to 36 percent.
Just over two months after Pearl Harbor, U. President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law Executive Orderwhich resulted in the removal from their communities and the subsequent imprisonment of all Americans of Japanese descent who resided on the West Coast.
Executive Order was the offshoot of a combination of wartime panic and the belief on the part of some that anyone of Japanese ancestry, even those who were born in the U.
Despite the internment of their family members, young Japanese-American men fought bravely in Italy, France and Germany between and as members of the U.
By the end of the war, the th had become the most decorated combat unit of its size in Army history. Baseball and the Battlefield In JanuaryKenesaw Mountain Landisthe national commissioner of baseball, wrote a letter to President Roosevelt in which he asked if professional baseball should shut down for the duration of the war.
During the war, 95 percent of all professional baseball players who donned major league uniforms during the season were directly involved in the conflict. Feller, in fact, enlisted in the U.
Navy one day after Pearl Harbor. Because baseball was depleted of so many able bodies, athletes who otherwise likely never would have made the big leagues won spots on rosters. One of the more notable was Pete Graya one-armed outfielder who appeared in 77 games for the St.
Louis Browns in Not all those who served in the military were superstars. Over minor leaguers also were killed. Other players overcame debilitating wartime injuries. One was Bert Sheparda minor league pitcher turned air force fighter pilot. The following year, he pitched three innings for the Washington Senators in a major league game.
The movie-going experience included a newsreel, which lasted approximately 10 minutes and was loaded with images and accounts of recent battles, followed by an animated cartoon. While many of these cartoons were entertainingly escapist, some comically caricatured the enemy.
As for the main program, movie theaters showed non-war-related dramas, comedies, mysteries and Westerns; however, a significant segment of feature films dealt directly with the war. Scores of features spotlighted the trials of men in combat while demonizing the Nazis and Japanese who perpetuated the conflict.
Many appeared in government-produced training films and morale-boosting short subjects. Others participated directly in the fighting. Clark Gablethe beloved, Academy Award-winning actor, served as a tail-gunner with the U. Army Air Corps and flew combat missions over Germany. James Stewartanother equally adored Oscar winner, had enlisted in the corps even before Pearl Harbor.
He eventually became a B combat pilot and commander and also flew missions over Germany. They were riveted by the frontline reports from such legendary journalists as Edward R.
Meanwhile, big bands, most famously the orchestra headed by Glenn Millerand entertainers such as Bob Hope performed before thousands at military bases. These programs were aired directly on the radio to listeners from Maine to California. Dramatic radio programming increasingly featured war-related storylines.III.
Wartime Research and Development. World War II saw a greater than ever emphasis on the importance of technology.
All of the countries involved raced to develop superior technology, and the U.S. federal government established several top secret research programs that proved vital in the war, the best known of which was the Los Alamos laboratories. The concept of a 'Home Front' - when civilians are mobilised en masse to support the war effort during a conflict - dates from World War One, as far as the British are concerned.
When researching wartime memories of British and Commonwealth servicemen and women during World War 2, a couple of significant memories will stick out for them, the first time in combat, the loss of a friend or comrade, even where they were the day the war ended.
Jun 29, · Great film prompting cinemagoers to help out with the war effort. Have you joined the Local Defence Volunteers? Schoolboys help with the harvest. National Sa.
More information about: The Home Front The concept of a 'Home Front' - when civilians are mobilised en masse to support the war effort during a conflict - dates from . Find great deals on eBay for home front ww2. Shop with confidence.