This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Residential mobility is common in families with young children; however, its impact on the social development of children is unclear. We examined associations between the number, timing and type of house moves in childhood and child behaviour problems using data from an ongoing longitudinal study. Methods Complete data on residential mobility and child behaviour was available for families.
PDF version Introduction McCartney, Peisner-Feinberg, and Ahnert and Lamb have surveyed research on the hopes and fears that have emerged as formal child care has become the norm in many nations around the globe. The greatest hope has been that child care may significantly improve the lives and development of young children, especially those most at risk of poor outcomes, and this potential is now well established.
However, even children whose mothers are not in paid employment now commonly participate in similar arrangements.
Enabling parents to work and conduct other activities away from their children Providing education and social activities for children. Demand for both has driven changes in care; and attendance in school-like programs for much of the day is now nearly universal in some countries as early as age Effects of early childhood.
Peisner-Feinberg categorizes research according to its focus on Interventions seeking to improve education and development, or Ordinary child care available to the general population. The fragmentation of research by specialization limits the clarity of conclusions from their review.
Yet, all of the authors recognize the need for research to become more multidisciplinary and to encompass the broader social ecology if it is to increase our understanding of the effects of child care on development.
The dimensions of experience they cite as important include age of entry, hours in care, type of caregiver and setting, and quality. Quality has been defined in terms of both process activities and structure teacher characteristics, class size, etc. Indeed, researchers have come to view child care and home experiences as being jointly determined.
Nevertheless, these particular reviews raise questions about whether we can expect only modest cognitive and social benefits which may be at least partially offset by modest negative effects on social behaviour and health.
In my view, a more optimistic assessment of the potential of child care to improve development is called for based on a somewhat broader review of the research, with a greater emphasis on education. To date, the immediate and lasting positive effects of quality care on language, cognitive development, and school achievement have been confirmed by converging findings from large, reasonably representative longitudinal studies and smaller, randomized trials with long-term follow-ups.
Child development benefits were most often found for quality center care, and further research is warranted on the effects of other types of care.
Group size is a particularly important contributor to effectiveness in the broader education literature. In research relating child care to behaviour problems, selection bias is especially worrisome as causality plausibly runs in the opposite direction.
A randomized trial of Early Head Start found that a treatment group received more hours of care and had fewer behaviour problems in the preschool years. Nations vary in the extent to which quality child care is viewed as a government responsibility to be supported by regulation and public funding. Benefit—cost analyses regarding interventions provide wide margins for benefits over costs, suggesting that even small to moderate benefits from quality care are of sufficient value to warrant government regulation and financial support on behalf of all children.
The foregone developmental benefits are large relative to the employment benefits to parents from such policies.
Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. Teachers College Record ; 3: Nores M, Barnett WS.
Benefits of early childhood interventions across the world: Under Investing in the very young. Economics of Education Review ;29 2: Developmental risks still associated with early child care. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and allied disciplines ;42 7: Early childhood education and care: The report of a consultative meeting.
Tietze W, Cryer D. Current trends in European early child care and education. You bet I care: Caring and learning environments: Quality in child care centers across Canada.They expect that to be particularly telling, since the effects of adversity in early childhood can re-emerge during adolescence.
Regardless of future findings, Fox . Importantly, childhood adversities are associated with new disorder onsets in adulthood, even after accounting for the effects of early-onset disorders, as well as greater chronicity and severity of lifetime mental disorders.
The effect of adverse childhood effects on brain development is clear. Article Sources American Academy of Pediatrics: Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Lifelong Consequences of Trauma. Draper B, Pfaff JJ, Pirkis J, et al.
Long-Term Effects of Childhood Abuse on the Quality of Life and Health of Older People: Results from the Depression and Early Prevention of Suicide in General Practice Project.
Executive summary. This report considers international research on the impact of early childhood education and care (ECEC) provision upon children’s development and, while not exhaustive, is an extremely comprehensive review, using studies reported from a wide range of sources including journals, books, government reports and diverse organisation reports.
The basic principles of neuroscience indicate that providing supportive and positive conditions for early childhood development is more effective and less costly than attempting to address the consequences of early adversity later.
The Lifelong Effects of Early Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress. Jack P. Shonkoff, Andrew S. Garner, THE COMMITTEE ON PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF CHILD AND FAMILY HEALTH, Defining a Distinctive Niche for Pediatrics Among Multiple Early Childhood Disciplines and Services.